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Terms and definitions

Citation

A signpost embedded in one text and pointing to another. The signpost can come in one or more of the following forms:
1.   A signal phrase: Lincoln charges the living to continue the fight waged by the dead.
2.   A parenthetical citation: The living must continue the fight waged by the dead (Lincoln).
3.   A footnote or endnote: The living must continue the fight waged by the dead.2

Coding

Analyzing and classifying textual features – in this case, how a paper is using its cited source.

Copying not marked as quotation

Reproducing material into a stand-alone sentence, even if it makes minor errors in transcription.

Documentation

Bibliographic information for works that are cited in the paper. This is usually a list of “References” or “Works Cited” at the end of the paper, but in Chicago style the documentation may appear in footnotes.

Keywords

Non-exchangable labels for major concepts. They are “non-exchangable” in that they have no synonyms; they are terms that the source has coined; or they are such standard labels that using a synonym would cause confusion. When used in a source, words and phrases such as the Middle Ages, fundamentalism, the White House, and deconstruction, for example, would appropriately be replicated in a paraphrase or summary of that source. What constitutes a keyword is a matter of interpretation rather than rule; hence each coder has to make these decisions and should make them conservatively: when you are coding and can’t decide whether something is a keyword, it isn’t.

Paraphrasing

Restating a phrase, clause, or one or two sentences while using no more than 20% of the language of the source.

  • This 20% does not include accurate synonyms, articles, prepositions, proper names, technical terms, or other keywords.
  • This 20% does include words whose morphology is changed (a change in verb tense, for example).

Patchwriting

Restating a phrase, clause, or one or more sentences while staying close to the language or syntax of the source.

Quotation

A passage in a student text that is (a) copied exactly and (b) marked as quotation, either by using quotation marks or by block indenting. If a word or punctuation is miscopied, the passage should still be marked as quotation. If square brackets or ellipses have been used to indicate additions or deletions, the passage should still be marked as quotation. If, however, words have been changed or rearranged or if pieces of the passage have been deleted or additional words added, the passage should be marked as patchwriting, not quotation.

Source

A text cited in the student paper.

Summarizing

Restating and compressing the main points of an entire text or at least three or more consecutive sentences in the text, reducing the summarized passage by at least 50% and using 20% or less of the language from that passage.

  • This 20% does not include accurate synonyms, articles, prepositions, proper names, technical terms, or other keywords.
  • This 20% does include words whose morphology is changed (a change in verb tense, for example).